Tag Archives: dose

Toxic slimming pills that killed student at Welsh university still available online

The dangerous Dinitrophenol pills can ‘cook’ you

Toxic slimming pills which killed a bulimic student at a Welsh university are still readily available online.

Eloise Parry, 21, who was a student at Glyndwr University in Wrexham , died in hospital on April 12, 2015, after taking eight tablets containing the poisonous Dinitrophenol (DNP).

Despite numerous cases of people dying after consuming the drug and repeated warnings not to take the “dangerous” substance it remains easily available online.

The drug accelerates the body’s metabolism which may burn off fat but can also trigger a number of dangerous side effects.

One website offers individual pills for £6.17 as part of a half-price offer and describes the product as a “best seller”.

It openly states that DNP “can kill you” and encourages people not to consume it and only use it for research, chemical and pesticide use.

It adds: “If I had to describe DNP in one word…poison.”

What is DNP?

According to the NHS the drug is a combination of combination of compounds widely used during the early 20th century in a range of industrial processes.

The yellow substance is described as having a “sweet, musty odour”.

Commercial DNP has a range of uses, including as an antiseptic, herbicide, explosives and photographic developing.

In 1933 an American researcher discovered that when taken by humans DNP dramatically speeds up the metabolism leading to rapid weight loss.

After this it was marketed as a weight-loss drug.

It was quickly pulled from the market after it was found to be highly toxic, causing “significant” side effects and in some cases death.

In 1938 the American Food and Drug Agency issued a statement saying DNP was “extremely dangerous and not fit for human consumption”.

The NHS said: “It appears that DNP has becoming increasing popular during the last decade among bodybuilders for its ‘quick-fix’ ability to lead to rapid weight loss.

“Presumably this information was spread both by word of mouth as well as via internet forums and message boards.”

A comprehensive description of the product is featured on the website which is marketed under the “fat loss” section.

It reads: “DNP can kill you. We discussed how DNP converts the energy from food into heat energy, which increases body temperature.

“Unfortunately there is no limit to how high your body temperature can get while on DNP, so it can literally ‘cook’ you.”

Warnings on the site where we found the tablets available state that anyone under 18 should “please leave this page”.

The warning at the bottom of their website again states their goods are for research and scientific purposes only.

It reads: “The goods offered by the seller by means of online store are designed for research and scientific purposes only.

“The goods offered by the seller represent chemical substances that must not be used for people or animals, as foodstuff, food additives, drugs, medical devices, cosmetics for people or animals.

“No product offered by the seller can be considered a meal, food additive, drug, nutrient, cosmetics or other substance designed for people or animals.

“No product can be used for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.”

The website says it ships from the European Union and deliveries, including to the UK, and is “close to” being successful “100%” of the time.

During the trial of Bernard Rebelo – the online steroid dealer whole sold Eloise the pills which killed her – prosecutor Richard Barraclough QC told Inner London Crown Court that taking the chemical has been described as “playing Russian roulette” and a case of “you might survive, you might not”.

The court heard Rebelo bought the chemical in drums from China and, knowing that it was not suitable for human consumption, took efforts to “deceive” the authorities.

Mr Barraclough said it was “well known in the area in which [Rebelo was] operating that any number of authorities and organisations had warned against the dangers of consuming this chemical”.

Describing DNP, and its effects, Mr Barraclough said it was a “highly toxic substance when ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin”.

He said it caused weight loss by burning fat and carbohydrates, in turn causing energy to be converted into heat.

“The result is that that person’s temperature and metabolic rate all dangerously increase,” Mr Barraclough explained.

Jurors heard that among other things, DNP could cause multiple organ failure, hyperthermia, nausea, coma, muscle rigidity, cardiac arrest and death.

“Essentially, this is what happened to Eloise Parry”, said Mr Barraclough.

The court heard that, depending on body weight, just 200mg of DNP can be lethal and that Ms Parry had taken eight capsules before she died.

In June 31-year-old Rebelo, from Gosport in Hampshire was jailed for seven years after being convicted of two counts of manslaughter and one of placing unsafe food on the market.

He told the jury that he included a warning on his website that the substance was not for human consumption.

Miss Parry’s sister Rebecca Parry said in a statement read out during the trial that she had been “focused” on losing weight.

She noted that in the weeks and months leading up to her death her sister had struggled “more and more” with her eating disorder.

She said: “The diet pills she had taken had made her lose a drastic amount of weight but she still wanted to be slimmer.”

The court heard that in the weeks leading up to her death Eloise was admitted to hospital numerous times because of the side effects of DNP.

The side effects of DNP are widely discussed on various internet forums with people asking for advice and users detailing their experiences.

One wrote that due to the drug causing excessive sweating they had to drink water every 15 minutes and change clothes halfway through a shift.

Another described using it as feeling “hungover 24/7”.

Latest NHS advice says: “One of the risks of DNP is that it accelerates the metabolism to a dangerously fast level.

“Our metabolic system operates at the rate it does for a reason – it is safe.”

Some of the potential side effects they list include fever, dehydration, excessive sweating, rapid or irregular heartbeat, and vomiting.

They add that a combination of the side effects can have an “an extremely damaging effect on the body” and can result in a coma or death.

Long-term use can cause cataracts and skin lesions and may cause damage to the heart and nervous system.

An inquest held in Shrewsbury in July 2015 heard Eloise, who had a history of bulimia, died after taking eight unlicensed tablets which she bought online.

Shropshire coroner John Ellery, who ruled that the death was accidental, said at the time he would be writing to the Government urging a review of the classification of DNP, which is marketed online as a ‘fat burning’ pill.

The hearing was told Miss Parry drove herself to the Royal Shrewsbury Hospital hours after taking DNP at her flat.

In a text message sent while she was at the hospital, she apologised to her lecturer and tutors for “being so stupid”.

The message, read to the court by Detective Sergeant Andy Chatting, said: “I screwed up big time. Binged/purged all night and took four pills at 4am.

“I took another four when I woke and I started vomiting soon after. I think I am going to die.”

Eloise used PayPal to buy a quantity of DNP on April 4 and ordered a second batch at 6.14am on the day of her death.

DNP – an industrial chemical historically used in explosives, dyes and fungicide which is also available as a powder – is not a controlled substance despite being linked to several previous deaths in the UK and overseas.

The industrial chemical was the subject of an Interpol warning notice issued to 190 countries in May 2015.

Ruling the death to be accidental, Mr Ellery said: “This is clearly a dangerous, toxic and fatal substance which should not be accessible, certainly not to persons seeking unlicensed non-prescribed medication.”

The UK Government said while possession of DNP for “legitimate, industrial purposes” is allowed it is illegal to sell for human consumption.

UK sellers of DNP can be prosecuted for offences under the Food Safety Act 1990.

Anyone who sees DNP for sale in any form is asked by the Food Standards Agency to to report it to the National Food Crime Unit as soon as possible

Full article: https://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/toxic-slimming-pills-killed-student-14956866

Babies die after mums given Viagra in Dutch trial

A Viagra in pregnancy trial has been urgently stopped after 11 newborn babies died.

Women taking part in the Dutch study had been given the anti-impotence tablets to improve growth of their unborn children because they had poorly developed placentas.

It appears the drug, which promotes blood flow, may have caused lethal damage to the babies’ lungs.

Experts say a full investigation is needed to understand what happened.

There is no suggestion that there was any wrong-doing.

Sick babies

Earlier trials in the UK and Australia and New Zealand did not find any evidence of potential harm from the intervention. But they also found no benefit.

At that time, in 2010, researchers said the treatment should be used only in trials.

Foetal growth restriction caused by an underdeveloped placenta is a serious condition that currently has no treatment.

It can mean babies are born prematurely, with a very low birth weight and poor chances of survival.

A medication that could improve weight or prolong the time to delivery could have significant advantages for these very sick babies.

Dummy drug

The latest Dutch study, which was due to run until 2020, was being carried out across 11 hospitals in the Netherlands, including the Amsterdam University Medical Centre.

In total, 93 women were given sildenafil (the non-brand name for Viagra) while the remaining 90 were given a dummy drug or placebo.

Twenty babies developed lung problems after birth – three in the placebo group and the rest in the treatment group.

Eleven in the sildenafil group died from lung complications.

Prof Zarcko Alfirevic, from the University of Liverpool, who led part of the UK research into sildenafil in pregnancy that found no benefit in terms of improving baby growth, said: “This finding in the Dutch study is unexpected.

“We need to be careful at this point to find out more.

“It needs a thorough investigation because the complications were not seen in the two other, similar trials that have already been done in the UK and Australia and New Zealand

Full article https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-44942302

Adverse drug reactions – (NICE)


  • Assess the nature and severity of the reaction.
  • This will determine whether urgent action is required or whether the person can be managed in primary care. For example, a cough due to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor can be troublesome but not life threatening, but an anaphylactic reaction is a medical emergency.
  • The nature of the presenting condition may strongly suggest that it is an adverse drug reaction (ADR). For example, the following conditions are often ADRs:
  • Acute dystonias
  • Blood dyscrasias
  • Skin reactions, such as Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
  • Take a history of the presenting symptoms, including:
  • When it started:
  • The time from when use of the drug was started to when the reaction develops may be characteristic of the reaction (for example anaphylaxis usually develops within a few minutes of parenteral drug administration).
  • If the drug was stopped, the time it took for the reaction to abate will often be related to the known duration of action of the drug.
  • Relationship to dose:
  • ADRs are often dose related and may be minimized by reducing the dose of the drug.
  • If the symptoms resolve when the drug is withdrawn, they may have been associated with the drug, although it could still have been coincidental.
  • If a drug is reintroduced and symptoms recur, the drug is most probably responsible for the adverse reaction. However, deliberate re-challenge is only very rarely justified (clinically and ethically) after serious ADRs, because of the risks involved.
  • Other possible causes:
  • The symptoms may be a manifestation of the person’s underlying illness or another disease.
  • Other medications (including self-medication and herbal remedies) could be responsible.
  • Consider the possibility of drug interactions (including with food and drinks).
  • Consider the drug history, and review any history of allergy or previous ADRs.
  • Take a complete drug history, including when the drug was started, what dose is being taken, what other drugs are being taken, and whether the person is also taking over-the-counter (OTC) or herbal medicines.
  • Check whether the person has ever had similar symptoms or presentation in the past with other drugs (from the same or a different drug class) or has a history of atopy or of ADRs with different presentation(s).
  • Be aware that even if a drug was stopped some time before the ADR, it may have been responsible if it has a very long duration of action (for example amiodarone).
  • Review the adverse effect profile of the drug and consider:
  • Whether the signs and symptoms are in keeping with the documented adverse effect profile of the drug.
  • Whether the ADR been reported before. This can be checked in the readily available sources of information, including:
  • The British National Formulary (BNF).
  • The electronic Medicines Compendium (www.medicines.org.uk).
  • Interactive Drug Analysis Profiles(iDAPs) — a complete listing of suspected ADRs for individual drugs that have been reported to the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) through the Yellow Card scheme by health care professionals, members of the public, and pharmaceutical companies.
  • Regional and district medicine information services. Details of regional centres and other useful contacts can be found in the front of the BNF and BNF for Children (or online). Local services can found by contacting the medicines information department or the hospital pharmacy in major hospitals.
  • How common the suspected adverse reaction is.


The Top Pharmaceutical Drugs Causing Cognitive-Related Damage

Pharmaceutical drugs pushed by the mainstream medical establishment are notorious for causing countless side-effects leading to even more problems. In fact, the average drug label contains 70 negative side-effects on average, with many drugs reaching the 100’s. Helping to make up the outrageous amount of side-effects caused by pharmaceutical drugs are brain-related side-effects, known to be causing serious damage to many prescription drug users.

Top Pharma Drugs Linked to Cognitive Damage

Collecting data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System, a company known as AdverseEvents, Inc. conducted a survey of pharmaceutical drugs potentially causing brain-related side-effects. In their quest, the company found more than 50,000 individual adverse event case reports linking to “common brain-related side-effect categories” such as:

  • Memory loss (amnesia)
  • Loss of libido
  • Compulsive behaviors

After analyzing the data collected, the company found which top drug culprits cause the greatest adverse impact on the brain. Used by thousands of individuals to ‘treat’ insomnia, a drug known as Ambien CR was the top drug linked to memory loss-related side-effects. Interestingly enough, it was recently reported that consuming sleep medication not only completely ignores the underlying problem of what is causing sleep issues, but also leads to an increased risk of cancer and premature death.

With about 41 percent of adults diagnosed with insomnia turning to prescription drugs, it is imperative to pass along this information. The top drug shown to lead to the most side-effects, causing inhibition of libido and more, is a hair loss medication known as Propecia. Other drugs making the top 25 count were commonly used antidepressants. Ingested by more than 1 in 10 Americans, antidepressants have also been shown to cause your arteries to thicken 400 percent more than aging.

These pharmaceuticals, as shocking as it may sound, have even been shown to worsen depression and cause suicidal thoughts. As for causing the greatest amount of side-effects related to compulsive behavior, a Parkinson’s medication called Mirapex won the gold trophy. Instead of resorting to this medication, brain exercises have been shown to provide significant relief to Parkinson’s patients. In addition, tai chi can improve balance and lower the risk of fallsin those suffering from mild or moderate Parkinson’s disease……

full article

How do we find and treat the ‘hidden cohort’ of patients dependent on opioid painkillers? 

ORAT – Opioid Risk Assessment Tool (ORAT)
‘People who are addicted to painkillers are a really complex group,’ says Jon Royle, chief executive of the Bridge Project. ‘You’ve got people who are prescribed painkillers and who are also using illicit drugs and have complex addiction issues. And you’ve got other people who were prescribed them to manage pain legitimately, so where the pain relief is required and where it has become an actual addiction problem is no longer clear cut.’ Among the patient group are those with complex emotional, psychological problems, who are taking anything to make themselves better, he explains. ‘So there are a lot of issues to work with when you get into this cohort.’

At the Bridge Project, based in Bradford, staff had experienced success in running a benzodiazepine withdrawal service for the past seven years, targeting patients in primary health care and GP practices.‘Doing that kind of work in primary care, we were also coming across a great deal of patients addicted to prescribed painkillers as well,’ says Royle. As with the benzos, ‘these patients are never going to roll up at an addiction treatment service on the high street – but that doesn’t mean that there’s not tens of thousands of them out there, people who’d say “I’ve never been near an illegal drug in my life”.’

So they decided to develop a model along similar lines to the benzodiazepine scheme, going into GP practices with the highest levels of prescribing and using the Opioid Risk Assessment Tool (ORAT) – which sits alongside the patient record system, Emis – to screen patients. They then worked with GPs to review the patients’ prescribing and liaised with specialist doctors and addiction practitioners to offer treatment, detoxification and support such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). The response has been ‘really good, with far better outcomes than with opiate users’, says Royle – success he attributes to planting the service within primary care.

ORAT – Dependency detector

Xanax WARNING: New prescription drugs craze is a deadly game of roulette

THE terrifying lottery facing thrill-seeking teenagers who buy the prescription drug Xanax online is today exposed by the Daily Express. Our investigation highlights the potentially deadly risk youngsters face when trying to obtain the highly addictive anti-anxiety medication for recreational use.

One site offering Xanax for sale in fact supplied us with Tramadol, an equally controversial opiate painkiller linked to hundreds of deaths.

MP Bambos Charalambous said: “These young people don’t know what they are putting into their bodies. They have no control at all.”

Rick Bradley, of the anti-abuse charity Addaction, said: “Purchases are either on the clean [legitimate] or the dark web or on the street. “The clean web is safer because it will be dispensed with information which might enable the user to take the drug more safely.”

Mr Bradley, who also sits on a new substances watchdog for Public Health England, added: “But that doesn’t make it safe at all.”


TMR’s journal entry


My journal entry today:

Now I’m losing it. Huge fight with my SO last night. WD is messing me up so bad. I can’t function at an type of normal level. Getting worse by the day. Going crazy. I need out of here where there’s nobody so that I won’t have anyone to verbally attack during horrifying fits of rage. I need help desperately. I don’t know what or where to get it from. Crying crying crying. So upset. If this is how it’s going to be, I don’t want it. I can’t do another year or two or three of this.

Why is this so hard? I’m killing relationships with everyone around me and I can’t seem to stop. I want out. I didn’t sign up to get my life ruined. Is it this bad for everyone else? The anger has taken over my life. And now I’m losing my relationship with my SO. Because of me. My mind is not right. Falling apart at the seams.

The suffering is unbearable a this point. I want to give up and escape from the torture in my head. Derealization is unbelievable and unbearable. I need to escape from myself. I’m not me anymore. Tina does not exist anymore. Someone else has taken my place. My mind is cracking. Splitting. Desperately need some support.

£800m – The huge cost of over-prescribing medicines in the Welsh NHS

The amount of drugs handed out has risen 50% to £800m a year